Metformin is a hypoglycemic agent from the biguanide group (dimethylbiguanide). The mechanism of action is associated with its ability to suppress gluconeogenesis, as well as the formation of free fatty acids and fat oxidation. Increases the sensitivity of peripheral receptors to insulin and glucose utilization by cells. Metformin does not affect the amount of insulin in the blood, but changes its pharmacodynamics by reducing the ratio of bound insulin to free one, and increasing the ratio of insulin to proinsulin.
Metformin stimulates glycogen synthesis by acting on glycogen synthetase. Increases the transport capacity of all types of membrane glucose transporters. Delays the absorption of glucose in the intestine.
Reduces triglyceride, LDL, VLDL. Metformin improves the fibrinolytic properties of blood by inhibiting tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibitor.
Metformin reduces hyperglycemia without leading to hypoglycemia. Unlike sulfonylurea derivatives, it does not stimulate insulin secretion and does not have a hypoglycemic effect in healthy individuals. Increases the sensitivity of peripheral receptors to insulin and glucose utilization by cells. It inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver, delays the absorption of carbohydrates in the intestine.
Stimulates glycogen synthesis by activating glycogen synthase. Increases the transport capacity of all types of membrane glucose transporters. In addition, it has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism: it reduces the content of total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and triglycerides. While taking metformin, the patient’s body weight either remains stable or moderately decreases.
While taking metformin, the patient’s body weight either remains stable or moderately decreases.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (non-insulin dependent) with ineffective diet therapy and exercise in obese patients.
In adults – as monotherapy or in combination with other oral hypoglycemic agents or with insulin.
In children aged 10 years and older – as monotherapy or in combination with insulin.