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Anabolic steroids in old age

It is well known that total testosterone declines with age in men from 50-55 y. by 0.8-1.6% / year, while free testosterone starts to drop from 30-35 years at the rate of 2-3% per year. By age 70, a man’s testosterone level can drop by as much as 50 percent. The problem of testosterone decline is one of the most urgent in medicine. Today we know that males go into andropause with age, similar to the female menopause.

The reasons of this decline is in malfunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary- testicles axis (HPTA), as well as an increase in the concentration of sex hormone binding globulin.

Previously, it was believed that the role of testosterone is important only for secondary sexual characteristics, libido and in the production of sperm, but now it has been proven that this hormone affects almost all vital systems of the body. Testosterone acts on the genitourinary system, brain, muscle, bone, adipose tissue and skin cells. Recently it has been discovered that low testosterone levels increase the risk of diabetes. Besides testosterone is responsible for the blood supply to tissues, as low levels of testosterone can lead to impaired blood flow.

Clinical signs of andropause

Testosterone deficiency leads to disturbances in almost all systems and tissues. “memory is impaired, concentration of attention decreases, mental alertness is lost. The patient’s eyes seem to fade, the head and shoulders are lowered, the muscles become more sluggish, the abdomen enlarges, the chest becomes more like a woman’s. Due to the low testosterone level, the bones become fragile and skin gets thinner.

The main signs and symptoms of andropause are:

  • Genitourinary disorders:
  • decreased sex drive and erectile dysfunction
  • decreased fertility
  • frequent urination
  • Vascular disorders:
  • sudden hyperemia of the face, neck, upper body
  • hot flashes
  • fluctuations in blood pressure
  • pain in the heart
  • dizziness
  • feeling short of breath
  • Mental disorders:
  • increased irritability
  • fast fatigue
  • weakening of memory and attention
  • Schlaflosigkeit
  • depressive conditions
  • decrease in general health and performance
  • Somatic disorders:
  • decrease of muscle mass and strength
  • fragility of bones
  • Gynäkomastie
  • obesity
  • baldness
  • thinning of the skin
  • decrease in the level of total and bioavailable testosterone
  • increased levels of estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin
  • anemia
  • increased cholesterol

Age of andropause

The likelihood of andropause onset increases with age.

Age of Andropause

  • 40-49 years 2-5%
  • 50-59 years 6-40%
  • 60-69 years 20-45%
  • 70-79 years 34-70%
  • over 80 years  90%

Side effects of anabolic steroids in old age


For older athletes, the risk of hypertension, vascular atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia and malignant tumors (prostate, mammary glands, intestines, etc.) is much higher and increases with age. Since anabolic steroids increase the rate of cell division, it was previously believed that these drugs can increase the frequency of mutations. If in youth the number of mutant cells is lower, and the immune system is more active, the body copes with this problem. But after 40 years, the immune system weakens, the number of mutated cells begins to grow rapidly – as a result, tumors may appear. However, modern experimental data deny the carcinogenic effect of steroids, with the exception of the prostate and liver (in the case of the use of hepatotoxic 17-alkylated drugs).

Swelling and hypertrophy of the prostate

The use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors is highly effective in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this regard, it has been hypothesized about the possible negative effect of exogenous androgens on the prostate gland. At the same time, it was noted that most often these diseases occur in old age, i.e. despite the decrease of androgens levels.

Numerous molecular studies have shown that the main pathogenetic factor in the development of BPH is an intracellular increase in 5-alpha-reductase activity, leading to an increase in the level of 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone in prostate cells, and not an increased plasma testosterone level.

Thus, BPH is not considered to be a contraindication to androgen replacement therapy. Many studies have not found a correlation between plasma testosterone levels and the incidence of prostate cancer.

In the presence of prostatic hypertrophy, testosterone is used in combination with 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (Finasteride) as hormone replacement therapy. This somewhat reduces the effectiveness of the cycle, but significantly reduces the development of androgenic side effects, including on the prostate gland. In addition, it is recommended to perform a preventive examination 2 times a year, as well as laboratory measurement of prostate specific antigen.

Alopecia (baldness)

Scalp hair loss is also associated with an increase in DHT, so combination therapy with Finasteride or Dutasteride can effectively prevent hair loss.

Suppression of testosterone secretion

As you know, with the use of androgens, it is possible to suppress the endocrine function of the testes and spermatogenesis through the mechanism of negative feedback. This effect is especially noted with long-term use of anabolic steroids in high dosages.

At the same time, intake of 240 mg of testosterone undecanoate (ANDRIOL) for 6 months was not accompanied by a decrease in the initial normal level of spermatogenesis. Other studies also did not show significant suppression of normal gonadotropin levels or endogenous testosterone with this drug, which is likely due to the short half-life of testosterone undecanoate.

Thus, adequate post-cycle therapy can eliminate this complication if andropause has not yet occurred. After the onset of andropause, continuous hormonal therapy is recommended.

Testicular atrophy

Due to the suppression of the secretion of gonadotropins by the feedback mechanism, with prolonged use of anabolic steroids, atrophy and desensitization of the testicles can develop. In other words, after discontinuation of exogenous testosterone, the testes do not restore the ability to secrete their own testosterone. Therefore, long cycles should be accompanied by gonadotropin.


Testosterone therapy often leads to an increase in hematocrit above physiological values ​​due to the constant stimulation of erythropoiesis (associated with increased production of erythropoietin under the influence of androgens). Most authors recommend reducing the dose of steroids when hematocrit values ​​are above 51% and discontinuation of the drug when the values ​​are more than 54%.


A controversial issue is the effect of exogenous androgens on blood lipid levels. Traditionally, it is believed that the increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in men compared with women of reproductive age is associated with a negative effect of androgens on the lipid profile. However, several studies have shown that testosterone administration leads to a decrease in atherogenic VLDL and LDL levels, while anti-atherogenic HDL levels are relatively unchanged.

TRT for the elderly

The main drugs for androgen replacement therapy in men are testosterone esters. There are oral, injectable and transdermal drugs. Currently, C17-alkylated testosterone (methyltestosterone), which have toxic and carcinogenic effect on the liver when taken orally, are practically out of use. Growth hormone is gaining popularity, which is able to rejuvenate the skin, as well as strengthen joints and ligaments.

Testosteron Enanthate und Testosteron Cypionate are the most common testosterone in the United States. Thus, an adequate dosing regimen is intramuscular administration of the drug in a dose of 1 ml once every 3 weeks. Often, a replacement dose is prescribed within 3 months, followed by cancellation for up to 3 months.

New drugs

Scientists are constantly looking for more perfect drugs. Now, for example, the injectable drug Nebido appeared, which needs to be injected four times a year. The drug provides a stable concentration of testosterone for three months: due to gradual release from the “oil depot”.

Testogels and testosterone patches are gaining popularity around the world, since they need to be applied on the skin once a day.

Relatively recently, a new form of testosterone administration was created – tablet under the tongue, or plates that are attached to the gums. These methods are undergoing clinical trials.


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Oral turinabol

Turinabol (Turanabol) is an AAS that is similar in effects and chemical structure to methandrostenolone. Unlike methan, turinabol contains an additional chlorine atom at the fourth carbon atom. Initially it was developed by the German pharmaceutical company Jenapharm and patented in 1961.

Turinabol profile

  • Anabolic properties – 180%
  • Androgenic properties – 50%
  • Conversion into estrogen – no
  • HPTA suppression – moderate-high
  • Liver Toxicity – moderate
  • Administration – tablets
  • Half-life – 16 hours
  • Detection time – up to 250 days (due to long-living fat-soluble metabolites)

Maximum plasma concentration 3 hours after administration.


The drug can be described as Methandrostenolone without water retention.

It is a slow acting steroid. During the cycle, weight, strength and relief progress very slowly, however the results are impressive.

Another feature of the drug is the absence of estrogen related side effects water retention, gynecomastia, etc

Also, it has been noted that the concentration of SHBG decreases, therefore testosterone levels in the blood go up.  There is also evidence that turinabol reduces the risk of blood clots in the blood vessels and heart.


The regular dose with minimum side-effects is  20-40 mg / pd, which should be divided into three portions. However, bodybuilders often neglect this, bringing the dosage up to 100-150 mg per day

The drug can be used both for gaining muscle mass and for drying. Turinabol cycle does not require the inclusion of gonadotropin (if it does not exceed 6-8 weeks), however, PCT is carried out with estrogen receptor blockers (tamoxifen).


Turinabol solo cycle is considered one of the easiest and safest in bodybuilding, therefore it is often recommended for beginners. For the first cycle, the optimal dosage is considered to be 40 mg / day for 6 weeks. This allows you to get impressive results, both in terms of gaining high-quality muscle mass, and in the progress of speed-strength results.

For gaining muscle mass, a combined course of Turinabol (20 mg per day) + testosterone enanthate 250 mg per week (or + sustanon) is better suited. Cycle duration is 6 weeks. First, enanthate is canceled, and after a week turinabol.

Athletes who are not interested in gaining mass and strive to increase speed and endurance (boxers, wrestlers, runners, etc.) are recommended lower doses – 10-20 mg per day.

However, one should remember that today turinabol can be easily detected in doping tests due to long-lived metabolites which can be detected within six to eight months. The latest developments in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have contributed greatly to this incredibly long detection period.


Turinabol is a 17-alkylated anabolic steroid that allows oral administration, which causes liver toxicity comparable to methandrostenolone. In general, side effects are quite rare and are most often associated with too long duration of a cycle and high doses. This drug strongly suppresses the secretion of its own testosterone.

Qualitative test

The presence of halogen (chlorine) in the turinabol molecule makes it possible to detect a fake even at home. There is a qualitative method for the determination of halogens in a sample – the Beilstein test.

To perform the experiment, you will need a gas burner, copper wire, and a sample to analyze. The sample is ground to a homogeneous powder. We bend the end of the copper wire, making a loop, and keep it in the burner flame until the greenish tint of the flame disappears. Next, we remove the wire from the flame, place a dry sample on the loop and put it back into the burner flame. If it turns green, the sample is positive.


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Gainers in sports

Gainer is a kind of sports nutrition, which contains proteins and carbs. Sometimes creatine, vitamins, amino acids and fat may be added. The major function of a gainer is to increase body weight and quickly replenish energy.

The history of gainers is quite long. In the very beginning they were made from cheap proteins, loaded with sugar and fats to maximize calories. One portion could contain up to 3000 kilocalories. The quality of proteins was quite poor.

What is it used for?

It is intended for athletes who has no problems with fat and seek to gain weight quickly. If you add three portions of gainer to your regular diet and regularly do your bodybuilding routine, then you will begin to grow steadily. For athletes with fast metabolic rate, this is sometimes not enough, so you have to include additional sports supplements and raise the calories of your daily diet. Athletes with weight problems are not recommended to take a gainer, since most of the carbs will be deposited in adipose tissue. So it is more reasonable for them to consider protein mixtures, and consume slow carbs mostly.

Also, the gainer is suitable for athletes involved in aerobic sports – boxers, runners, fighters. If you take it before training it will allow to maintain a high level of energy during it and helps to restore strength and muscles after it. Following the correct diet and weight gainer regimen, will let you easily maintain weight at the desired level. Modern gainers are good not only for gaining mass, but also as restorers.

How to take it

In bodybuilding, the best time is few minutes after training. This will allow you to quickly restore strength and energy, regenerate muscles and suppress catabolism.

You can take gainers before training as well. The high level of carbs will allow you to train harder and longer, and a high concentration of amino acids will suppress catabolism from the very beginning of training. However, there is a significant drawback – this may decrease fat burning during training, and increase the likelihood of fat deposition.

Some athletes recommend taking the gainer two, three or even four times a day. This is reasonable if you want to gain mass as quickly as possible and are not prone to fat deposition, otherwise you risk gaining mass mainly due to fat. It is more reasonable to take it 1 time a day and the remaining 2-3 doses should be protein.

Dosage and Preparation

On average, each portion contains: 20-40 g of protein, 50-80 g of carbohydrates and a few grams of unsaturated fat. The amounts of other substances vary depending on the brand of the product. Do not exceed the dosage recommended by the manufacturer, as large amounts simply will not be fully absorbed. It is quite simple to prepare gainer – a portion of dry powder is stirred in milk or water, after which it is ready for use.

Combination with other sports nutrition

The gainer works well with creatine. Carbs and proteins included in it help creatine to be absorbed better and faster. They can be mixed in one cocktail and taken after training.

In addition, to make bodybuilding as productive as possible, it is advisable to also take protein, a pre-workout complex and a vitamin-mineral complex. It goes well with anabolic complexes.

Never take a gainer during your drying and weight loss cycles.

Gainer harm and side effects

Some people ask: “How harmful is a gainer?” You should understand that it is created from natural ingredients, so it is no different from ordinary food. It is suitable for both males and females, and any age. There is a possibility of individual intolerance and indigestion, due pancreas malfunction. Also, you should remember that improper storage conditions (moisture) may cause spreading of bacteria in the product. In this case a typical food poisoning occurs. Therefore, you should keep it in dry place. Possible digestive disorder may be also linked with lactose intolerance. In case of intolerance try to reduce the dosage.


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Finasteride for bodybuilding

In this article we’ll discuss the role of finasteride in bodybuilding

Our body produces an enzyme called 5 – alpha – reductase. This enzyme converts Testosterone into the most powerful physiological androgen, Dihydrotestosterone. When this enzyme in normal quantities, then everything is fine, but when too much 5-alpha-reductase is produced, then steroid user begins to face such “unpleasant little things” as: baldness, increased hair growth, oily skin , excessive sweating (which smells like a real goat), acne, hyper-expressed libido and the most unpleasant thing – prostatic hypertrophy.

Finasteride is a specific, competitive inhibitor of 5 – alpha – reductase. When entering the blood plasma, it extremely quickly binds to this enzyme in the same way as Testosterone does, only in this case the conversion to DHT no longer occurs.

Actually, in the human body there are 2 types of 5 – alpha – reductase. The first is located mainly in the skin of the body and is dominant in the part of the head where hair grows. The second type is found in the tissues of the genital organs, the prostate.

So, Finasteride primarily has an affinity with the type 5 – alpha – reductase, which predominates in the genitals and the prostate gland. As for the type due to which AAS users are actively bald, then Proscar also interacts with him, but to a lesser extent.

Nevertheless, the competent use of Finasteride is really the only salvation for those whose conversion to Dihydrotestosterone exceeds reasonable limits. Therefore, this substance will at least partially stop losing hair on your head and slow down the growth of the prostate.

But first of all, you need to understand in the case of taking which specific AAS , it generally makes sense to take Finasteride. And there are actually quite a few of them, but they (with the exception of two) are the sales leaders:

  • Testosteron
  • Methandrostenolone
  • Nandrolon
  • Methyltestosterone
  • Fluoxymesterone (Halotest)

As everyone knows, if specifically, you weren’t happy to be born a pure mesomorph, then in relation to Bodybuilding and Powerlifting, any cycle without Testosterone is the road to nowhere (except perhaps the last 14-10 days of drying, when you decided to achieve direct peak dryness and muscle hardness).

With regards to Methandrostenolone, then you can do without it absolutely calmly, but for some reason most do not want to do without it. Nandrolone turns into Dihydronandrolone – a substance that is completely inert in activity both in muscles and in peripheral tissues (the same scalp and prostate), but then Dihydronandrolone can lead to a sharp disruption of neuro-muscular conduction, which on the one hand means a lack of growth muscles and strength (strength can finally fall), and on the other hand, it can provoke problems with erection. So here Finasteride is in the subject.

Methyltestosterone and Fluoxymesterone are the very exceptions discussed above. In general, it is completely pointless to suppress their androgenic side, because thanks to it they have the main effects, moreover, without conversion to DHT, they have strong androgenic activity. So there is only one piece of advice – to avoid.

The list of steroids that do not turn into DHT at all, or the degree of their conversion is scanty so much that it can be safely neglected. They do not possess noticeable androgenic activity by themselves:

  • Methenolone (Primobolan),
  • Boldenone,
  • Oxandrolone,
  • Oral Turinabol.

And finally, there is a list of steroids against which Finasteride is powerless and useless:

  • Trenbolone,
  • Oxymetholone,
  • Stanozolol,
  • Drostanolone,
  • Mesterolone (Proviron).

This article does not indicate specific schemes and doses for Finasteride, because firstly the article is not about this, and secondly, the plan should be selected individually for the person based on the results of blood tests and dosages of the AAS themselves.


Due to the ability of type II 5-alpha reductase inhibitors to suppress the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, finasteride preparations can cause abnormalities in the development of the external genital organs in a male fetus if they are prescribed to pregnant women.

Women going to become pregnant or are pregnant should avoid contact with crushed or disintegrated finasteride tablets due to the potential for finasteride to enter the body and the subsequent potential risk to the male fetus. A small amount of finasteride has been detected in semen. In this regard, women who can potentially become pregnant or are pregnant should avoid contact with the sperm of patients taking finasteride.

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Fat burners in sports

Fat burners are very popular in modern world. In this article we’ll talk about different types of fat burners and how they work.

Fighting excess weight is an actual problem for many people and every second visitor of the gym has the motivation “I want to lose weight”.

Sports fat burners for women and men

Strictly speaking, the name “fat burner” is incorrect. None of the approved drugs directly breaks down fat deposits.

The process of breaking down fats – lipolysis – is quite complex, and we will not describe it in detail. In short, excess body fat is processed by the body in conditions of a lack of energy from food. That is, a calorie deficit.

This means that in order to lose weight, you must spend more energy than you receive or eat less calories than you spend. From these two principles, in general, you can see how sports fat burners work – either increase energy expenditure, or block hunger or the absorption of nutrients.

Types of sports fat burners:


appetite suppressants

calorie blockers (fats or carbohydrates)



Thermogenics are substances that increase body temperature, thereby increasing calorie expenditure. If you decide to purchase the occasional sports fat burner, there are likely to have nervous system stimulants such as caffeine, yohimbine, and synephrine.

Koffein is perhaps the most familiar CNS stimulant: it is found in coffee, cocoa, tea, Coca-Cola, mate, guarana. It stimulates the release of adrenaline, which means an increase in blood pressure and body temperature. Caffeine increases endurance, allows you to concentrate on the training process and the desired result.

Yohimbine is considered the “light version” of caffeine. In terms of the mechanisms of influence on the human body, it is similar to caffeine, but initially it was used as an aphrodisiac and a remedy for erectile dysfunction. In addition, it has a mild antidepressant effect, that is, improves mood.

Synephrine is isolated from bitter oranges – oranges. But it is also found in other types of citrus fruits. Sports nutrition manufacturers present synephrine as a safe and non-toxic alternative to ephedrine, a CNS stimulant banned in most countries.

Since the mechanism of all thermogenics is approximately the same, then the side effects from them are similar. These are tachycardia, increased blood pressure, sweating, heartburn and other digestive problems, excessive agitation and anxiety. Thermogenics should not be taken in the afternoon to avoid insomnia.

In addition, tolerance develops to stimulants of the nervous system over time, it is necessary to increase the dosage, which may cause side effects. Together with physical activity, it is simply harmful to the body, especially to the heart. And with an increase in tolerance the fat burning effect decreases.

Appetite suppressants

Appetite suppressants – anorectics – act on the hunger and satiety center, allowing you to feel full from less food. Therefore you do not suffer from hunger in between meals. The most effective drug is Sibutramine, which is used to treat obesity. At one time, fluoxetine was used to suppress appetite by athletes, which, strictly speaking, belongs to antidepressants.

But both of them are prescription drugs in many countries. Other anorectics, similar in action to amphetamine, like itself, are prohibited from circulation.

It is also worth mentioning here that the line between tegmogenics and appetite suppressants is rather blurred – the center of hunger is strongly associated with serotonin and adrenaline. So, caffeine also suppresses appetite to some extent, and fluoxetine has a mild stimulating effect. This means that the side effects of anorectics will be similar to the side effects of CNS stimulants – high blood pressure, excessive nervous excitement, anxiety and insomnia, tremors and tachycardia. The danger and harm of these fat burners also lies in the fact that often people who take these drugs for a long period of time without a doctor’s supervision, eating behavior is disturbed, which leads to serious gastrointestinal diseases, insomnia and general anxiety.

Thus, appetite suppressants are not really sports fat burners for weight loss, but rather medical ones. They are used to treat obesity and strictly under the supervision of a physician.

Calorie blockers

Calorie blockers interfere with the absorption of fats and carbohydrates in the digestive tract, respectively. The enzymes lipase and amylase lose the ability to break down food and are simply removed from the body. The most popular drugs are Xenical and Metformin.

They are effective for weight loss, however they may cause stomach upset. In addition, the intake of nutrient blockers leads to a state of hunger, which interferes with an effective training process.

These drugs are taken with virtually harmless medical supervision to minimize the harm from this type of fat burner.

Fat burners effective under stress
Lipotropics are substances that stimulate the processes of fat breakdown at the cellular level. They facilitate the release of fats from deposits and transport them to the site of breakdown during exercise.


Omega-3, although its fat burning effect is not the most popular among athletes. For weight loss, its ability to regulate metabolism and reduce insulin sensitivity is important.
Linoleic acid is another fatty acid involved in energy metabolism and the breakdown of body fat. Although its effectiveness is often questioned, linoleic acid can often be found in fat burning complexes.

Choline or Vitamin B4. Participates in the synthesis of acetylcholine – a neurotransmitter, ensures the functioning of the nervous system, the permeability of neurons and the required speed of nerve impulses, which is important for intense sports.

Betaine is a vitamin-like substance derived from choline. Promotes the breakdown of fats, and also increases muscle endurance. Reduces the risk of sharp pain in the liver, which appear during cardio training.

Melatonin is a sleep-regulating hormone. Its effect on weight loss is indirect, the main effect of melatonin is to normalize the rhythms of the body. Meanwhile, trainers and sports nutritionists agree that both healthy sleep and the stability of sleep and wakefulness are important for losing weight, so you should try the “sleep hormone”.

L-carnitine is perhaps the most effective sports fat burner. It accelerates the transport of fatty acids to the site of their breakdown during exercise. In addition, it has a pronounced anabolic effect, which has a beneficial effect on muscle mass. It also improves endurance and stress tolerance. L-carnitine is considered a sports fat burner for girls, as it is effective in such “typically female” sports as dancing, running and aerobics.

All lipotropics are safe fat burners, since side effects appear when the dosage is significantly exceeded. When used normally, they cause blood pressure and heart problems, fever, irritation and insomnia. Most of them have a positive effect on other human organs and systems.

The disadvantage of lipotropics is that they are effective only in combination with sports. That is, it will not work if you do nothing.

Other Slimming Drugs

Diuretics can be considered as slimming products, however, the weight loss occurs at the expense of water. And their danger is in dehydration of the body and high load on the kidneys. So these are not fat burners at all.

So what’s the best sports fat burner?

If we talk about the effectiveness and minimization of harm from side effects, then we would recommend the fat burner L-Carnitine. It not only helps you lose weight, but it also strengthens your joints, improves the functioning of the nervous system, and generally invigorates you for training. As a sports fat burner and general health supplement, L-Carnitine is equally suitable for women and men.

We would also like to remind you that for effective weight loss, it is worth paying great attention to a balanced diet and physical activity: a combination of aerobic training and strength training. A high-quality and durable result can be achieved by combined approach.

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Thymosin (TB 500) – a wonder drug for wound healing

You can buy TB-500 (Thymosin) here

TB-500 (Thymosin) is a synthetic version of a naturally occurring peptide hormone found in all types of cells. The usage of TB-500  accelerates wound healing, and exhibits a multidirectional protective effect. Recent studies have shown that Thymosin has some effect on athletic performance. For the first time Thymosin was found in thymus.

In medical practice TB-500 accelerates wound healing, and is used for restoration of myocardium after infarction, and for treatment of different types of ischemia.

As a doping it was initially used for racing horses and later on for athletes of different kind of sports. For long time it was considered undetectable in doping tests, however nowadays it is detectable by liquid chromatography.


Thymosin speeds up recovery of all types of  muscles (including heart), ligaments, joints and skin. Actually it has beneficial effect on all the tissues.

Reduces inflammation

Promotes the formation of new blood vessels in all tissues, which improves their nutrition.

Has protective effect on nervous system.

Increases production of luteinizing hormone, and testosterone accordingly.

Increases the sensitivity of tissues for insulin, which is beneficial in case of diabetes.

Improves joint mobility and elasticity of ligament

Regenerates heart muscle and reduces the risk of heart attack

Unlike popular misconception TB-500 has no significant effect on muscle growth and strength.

Thymosin Cycle

Thymosin Beta 4 cannot be taken orally, since stomach acid easily destroy it, therefore it should be injected into the muscle or under the skin. Its major application is for treatment of injuries, and as cardioprotector.

Loading phase: dose 2-6 mg a week, split into two injections (2-3 mg each: Monday, Thursday). The length of the loading phase is 4 weeks.

Supporting phase: 2-4 mg a week, split into 2 injections. Duration 4-8 weeks.

Alternative scheme: 10 mg for the 1st week (1-2 mg daily), then 5 mg a week (optimally split into two injections) for 5 weeks and a maintenance dose of 10 mg per month (2 mg every 6 days ) is optimal and effective in the opinion of many US athletes using the TB500. In total, we get 18 vials of 2 mg for the first 6 weeks + 5 vials of 2 mg for 4 weeks to maintain the results.


Preparation and storage of the solution


Cool the bottle to room temperature and introduce the required volume of water for injection (which should flow down the wall of the bottle), then stir with rotating movements (do not shake), or put it in the refrigerator for a while. It is better to use saline solution, which allows it to be frozen.

In the refrigerator, the solution remains stable for about 8 days, in the frozen state – up to a month.


According to different studies there are no toxic or serious side effects even at a dose of 1260 mg.

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Testicular atrophy, prevention and treatment

Buy HCG online to prevent testicular atrophy here

Testicular atrophy, is a condition in which the male testes shrink significantly. In case of testicular atrophy, the function of testes almost completely disappears, that is, the production of testosterone and sperm is sharply reduced. The resulting conditions are called “Androgenic deficiency” and “Male infertility”, respectively. Testicular atrophy is irreversible. The volume of an atrophied testicle is usually 6 cubic centimeters or less. The average volume of a healthy, undamaged testicle in men is 17-18 cubic centimeters. There are reversible states of damaged testicles – hypotrophy with partial loss of function.

Taking steroid hormones can stop the natural testosterone production. This happens due to the reverse mechanism, when the hypothalamus recognizes over-abundancy of sex hormones (including androgens, progestins and estrogens) and stops producing of gonadotropic hormone. It normally stimulates Leydig cells in the testes to produce testosterone. The lack of gonadotropic hormone causes testes stop functioning and shrink.

HPTA hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis: The hypothalamus produces gonadotropic hormone, which promotes testosterone production in the testes. Testosterone, in turn, suppresses the activity of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland to some extent.

Signs of testicular atrophy / hypotrophy

Decreased testosterone production, which is accompanied by worsening of general well-being, decreased performance, mood, desire and willingness to exercise, decreased libido, impaired potency, muscle loss, feminization and other signs of testosterone deficiency.

Decrease in semen volume, sperm quantity and quality.

Leydig cells make up only about 5% of the testicle mass. Therefore, palpation analysis of testicular size is not a reliable method for assessing the loss of Leydig cells, since the volume can change very slightly (only 5%) with almost complete suppression of function. The loss of spermatogenesis cells is more noticeable on examination and palpation; from the loss of these cells, the volume of the testicles is significantly reduced.

Treatment and prevention of Testicular atrophy

Testicular atrophy can develop into primary hypogonadism, which does not respond to treatment, but it can be successfully prevented. For this, HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is used, which is available under the trade names Pregnyl, Profazi, Horagon, etc. 4 weeks of HCG cycle is enough to prevent the development of testicular atrophy. The use of gonadotropin during a long cycle (longer than 6 weeks) is recommended by many experts. Already existing testicular atrophy is treated only symptomatically. Testosterone replacement therapy is used to replenish the lack of testosterone.

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Creatine for bodybuilding

Creatine is a natural molecule found in muscles and is required for energy metabolism and movement. The human body contains about 100-140 g of this substance, which serves as an energy source for muscular contraction. The daily consumption of creatine under normal conditions is approximately 2 g. It can be synthesized by the body independently from glycine, arginine and methionine, which are natural protein components.

In humans, enzymes involved in its synthesis are localized in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. It can be produced in any of these organs, and then transported by the blood to the muscles. Approximately 95% of the total creatine is in skeletal muscles.

With increasing physical activity, the consumption of creatine also increases. Its supply must be replenished through diet or through the body’s own natural production. The immediate source of energy for the contraction of skeletal muscle is a molecule called ATP.

When ATP releases energy for muscle contractions, the phosphate group is cleaved off and a new molecule called ADP  is formed. This process is reversible with creatine phosphate. Creatine combines with phosphate in the cell to form phosphocreatine.

Effects of creatine

Increased strength

In bodybuilding, during high-intensity exercise, the need for ATP in working muscles increases significantly – hundreds of times higher than at rest. Depleted stores of ATP and phosphocreatine must be continually replenished in order for muscle contractions to continue at peak levels of frequency and strength. Thus, by taking creatine, you can increase the amount of ATP and accordingly muscle strength.

Increased muscle mass

Recent experiments prove that creatine monohydrate is able to increase the repetition maximum in the bench press by 10 kg after a week of intake, and improve sprint ability. The increase in strength allows you to achieve the maximum growth-stimulating effect on the muscles. However, it should be noted that taking creatine does not always have this effect due to individual sensitivity of the body to creatine.

Muscle quality

Creatine monohydrate binds to water as it is absorbed into muscle cells. As more creatine is stored, more water is drawn into the muscle cell. This explains the hydrating effect of creatine on muscle cells, which are approximately 75 percent water. Bodybuilders notice that a well-hydrated muscle looks fuller, rounder, and more pumped outwardly.

When muscle cells increase in volume due to overhydration, protein synthesis is increased and protein breakdown is minimized (this can also increase glycogen synthesis).

Increased secretion of anabolic hormones

Research shows that creatine can increase the secretion of endogenous anabolic hormones in response to exercise. These hormones are represented by growth hormone and testosterone. Moreover, the level of growth hormone increases only 2 hours after taking creatine. Such a delay may indicate that the release of growth hormone does not depend on creatine itself, but is of an indirect nature and arises as a result of a cellular response. Also it increases the secretion of insulin-like growth factor by 15% compared to the placebo group. The formation of myostatin is significantly suppressed. Creatine also increases the level of dihydrotestosterone.

Lactic acid buffer

There is evidence that creatine also works as a lactic acid buffer. During intense anaerobic workouts, the muscles secrete lactic acid, this substance is partly responsible for the burning sensation that occurs when the muscle is working to failure. In recent studies it was shown that creatine can inhibit lactic acid secretion and action and improve recovery time after short-term intense exercise (for example, strength training).

Other positive effects of creatine

  • Supplementation with creatine has a positive effect on reducing total plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoproteins (protection of the cardiovascular system);
  • It may have anti-inflammatory effects in acute inflammation, local irritation, and chronic conditions of inflammation;
  • Creatine / phosphocreatine system has a protective effect on the central nervous system during ischemia and in hypoxic conditions;
  • Creatine supplementation is used to treat diseases that cause muscle wasting, creatine depletion, and neuromuscular disorders;
  • Creatine is being investigated for potential in inhibiting the growth of certain types of tumors in mammals. Some studies suggest that creatine may have some anti-cancer activity;
  • Supplementation with creatine has a positive effect on the athletic performance of vegetarians;
  • In chronic heart failure, cardiac creatine levels decrease; Supplementation with creatine in such symptomatic patients increases the amount of energy-rich phosphocreatine in skeletal muscle and therefore performance in terms of strength and endurance. In fifty patients who underwent heart valve replacement surgery, creatine supplementation reduced arrhythmias by 75%.

Who needs creatine?

  1. Creatine for athletes

Creatine is good for short-term athletic performance, for example, in sprinting, cycling, strength sports and, of course, in bodybuilding. Creatine is suitable for sports that require jumping, speeding up. Team sports such as basketball, football, hockey, as well as martial arts, tennis, athletics and sprint running are also characterized by short explosive muscle contractions followed by short rest or recovery periods.

Apparently, creatine helps maintain a high level of rapid energy supply to the body. It also prevents the build-up of plasma ammonium ions, which would otherwise slow down physical activity.


  1. Creatine for gaining muscle mass

Supplementing your diet with creatine can help an athlete train harder for a longer period of time. In turn, the increased intensity of muscle training generates faster muscle growth and strength. Creatine allows weightlifters to achieve an increase in muscle mass of 2 or more kg.

Many athletes taking creatine have noted an increase in water retention within muscle cells. This increases the volume of the cell and muscle tone, as a result the muscles are better trained. A strength sports athlete weighing 75 kg can increase his weight by 2-4 kg.

After stopping taking creatine, weight gain decreases again due to the increased excretion of water. However, due to better performance during training, some of the real gain in muscles remains.

  1. Creatine for vegetarians

Since vegetarians do not consume meat, which is the main source of creatine, therefore it is especially recommended. And here there is a problem not only of sports achievements in bodybuilding, but also of health.

  1. Creatine for weight loss

Creatine improves training results, strength, recovery rate, speed, and, as a result, accelerates the loss of fat.


Creatine and children

It is better to postpone the use of creatine until the end of puberty. The thing is that that the long-term effects of creatine are still not well understood. In other words, if long-term side effects of creatine exist, then younger athletes who use it in their practice will be more susceptible to these adverse reactions than adults. Thus, creatine can only be used safely after puberty.

Creatine and the elderly

Muscle creatine levels decline with age, partly explaining the decreased strength and predisposition to fatigue seen in older adults. Creatine intake can stop these unwanted age-related changes. This view is supported by improvements in health and strength in people over 50 who used creatine. It is also important that the effectiveness of creatine supplementation increases with age.

Oddly enough, after the age of 70, the effectiveness of creatine begins to drop dramatically. This may be due to decrease in endogenous anabolic hormones, and reduction in the number of muscle fibers, which are the main consumers of creatine.

However, as it can be easily avoided through regular exercise. An active lifestyle will maintain high levels of anabolic hormones and prevent the loss of muscle fibers.

Additionally, creatine prevents the development of certain mental and neurodegenerative diseases of the elderly, reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, and improves DNA methylation.

However, you should remember that creatine in rare cases can slightly increase blood pressure, therefore you should monitor your blood pressure when taking creatine.

Creatine and girls

According to different studies the effect of creatine in women is less prominent than in men. This difference is explained by higher testosterone levels in men.

Thus, creatine can be recommended for women, especially when losing weight. It will increase the intensity of your workouts, and, therefore, accelerate the process of breaking down fat. In addition, creatine will preserve muscle mass, which begins to be actively lost during fasting. Therefore, creatine is useful not only for gaining muscle mass, but also for the formation of a beautiful female figure.

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PCT - Post-Cycle-Therapie

Die Post-Cycle-Therapie ist eine Kombination von Medikamenten, die zur Verringerung der Nebenwirkungen von Steroiden eingesetzt werden. PCT ist ein Muss bei hohen Dosen, Langzeitzyklen oder Steroidkombinationen.



  • Stellt den hormonellen Hintergrund wieder her
  • Erhält die gewonnene Muskelmasse
  • Verhindert Gynäkomastie
  • Verhindert die Atrophie der Hoden
  • Reduziert andere Nebenwirkungen

Hauptbestandteile der Post-Cycle-Therapie

OmatRomatase-Hemmer (Létrоzоlе, Аnаstrоzоlе usw.) - Sie werden während des Zyklus eingenommen, um östrogenbedingte Nebenwirkungen leicht aromatisierbarer Steroide (osterestosterоne, Sustаnone, МethannDrostenolon und so weiter).

Blocker des Östrogenrezeptors (Tamoxifen, Clomifen) - Sie werden nach dem Zyklus 2-3 Wochen lang eingenommen, um die natürliche Testosteronproduktion wiederherzustellen. Ihre Verwendung ist ein Kern von PCT, daher sollten Sie es nach dem Zyklus jeder Komplexität nehmen.

Chinesischer Gönner - Verhindert die Atrophie der Hoden. Normalerweise begleitet es schwere Zyklen, die länger als sechs Wochen dauern. Sie sollten in der 2-4. Woche eines Zyklus mit der Einnahme beginnen und fortfahren, bis Ihr Steroid vorbei ist, und dann mit der Einnahme von Östrogenrezeptorblockern beginnen.

Kabergolin (Déstinéx) ist eine Hemmung der Prolactinproduktion. Es begleitet die Zyklen mit Steroiden, die den Prolaktinspiegel erhöhen (Nāndrôlone, Тrénbоlone). Die übliche Dosierung beträgt 0,25 mg alle 4 Tage während Ihres Zyklus.

Itidditiоnаl cоmpоnеnts

Testen Sie einen Booster Stellen Sie die Hormonspiegel Ihres Körpers wieder her. Ihre Verwendung beginnt am Ende der Steroidaufnahme und dauert noch 2-3 Wochen (verringern Sie die Dosierung allmählich).

Hepato-schützende Substanzen - Verringerung der hepatotoxischen Wirkung einiger Steroide. Beginnen Sie mit der Einnahme in der 2. Woche eines Zyklus und fahren Sie drei weitere Wochen nach dem Ende eines Zyklus fort.

Оmеgа-3-Fettsäuren Normalisieren Sie den Chlesterolspiegel und verhindern Sie so Herz-Kreislauf-Probleme. Sie sollten sie während Ihres Zyklus und zwei weitere Wochen danach einnehmen.

Wachstumshormon und andere Peptide kann Ihnen helfen, die gewonnene Muskelmasse zu halten, auch Angstzustände, Depressionen und kardiovaskuläre Nebenwirkungen von Steroiden zu reduzieren.

Cortisоl blöken - Diese Medikamente unterdrücken den Katabolismus und helfen, die Muskeln vor Zerstörung zu bewahren. Nehmen Sie sie am Ende Ihres Zyklus und fahren Sie noch 3 Wochen fort. Es gibt jedoch keine hochwirksamen Medikamente in dieser Gruppe.

Beachten Sie, dass Prоviron nicht die optimale Substanz für PCT ist. Alle oben genannten Substanzen sind miteinander kompatibel.

Beispiele für die Post-Cycle-Therapie

Es gibt verschiedene PCT-Schemata, jedoch sind einige Merkmale gemeinsam. Beachten Sie, dass Östrogenblocker nur nach Beendigung der Steroidwirkung eingenommen werden. Die Dauer der PCT kann zwischen zwei und fünf Wochen variieren, was von der Hypophysenunterdrückung abhängt.

Clomifen (Tage - Dosierung).

3-150 / 12-100 / 15-50 / 15-25 - für einen sehr schweren Zyklus.

15-100 / 15-50 / 15-25 schwerer Zyklus.

30-50 / 15-25 - mittlerer Zyklus.

15-50 / 15-25 / 15-25 (alle zwei Tage) - Lichtzyklus.

15-50 / 15-25 – Оxаndrоlоnе, Méthāndrоstеnolone, Méthénólоne, StаnоzоlolТuranabol

Тоrеmifеne (Tage - tun)

3-120 / 12-60 / 15-30 / 15-15 - für einen sehr schweren Zyklus.

15-60 / 15-30 / 15-15 - schwerer Zyklus.

30-30 / 15-15 - mittlerer Zyklus.

15-30 / 15-15 / 15-15 (alle zwei Tage) - Lichtzyklus.

15-30 / 15-15 - andxandrolon, Мethandrostenolon, henethenolon, Stаnоzоlоl, оrāl Тurinabol.

Таmоxifen (Tagesdosis) - NEHMEN SIE ES NICHT NACH Nandrolon und Bolrenbolon Fahrräder!!!

3-80 / 12-40 / 15-20 / 15-10 - für ein sehr schweres Fahrrad.

15-40 / 15-20 / 15-10 - schwerer Zyklus.

30-20 / 15-10 - mittlerer Zyklus.

15-20 / 15-10 / 15-10 (alle zwei Tage) - leichtes Eis.

15-20 / 15-10 - andxandrolon, Мethandrostenolon, Мethenolon, Stаnоzоlоl, orales Тurinаbоl.

Andere Komponenten:

Cаbergolin (Dostinex) zur Verringerung des Proteinspiegels nach Nondrólóné- und Resinból-Zyklen (0,25 mg einmal alle vier Tage, während 1,5 Monaten).

Außerdem: Vitamin E - 200-400 IE pro Tag im 1. Monat der PCT, Zink - 50 mg / Tag.

PCT von Dr. Мiсhаеl Sсаlly

1-20 Tage: 10 HCG-Injektionen von 2000 IE, jeden zweiten Tag vor dem Schlafengehen.

1-30 Tage: Medium (Cliphencitrat), 50 mg, 2-mal täglich.

1-45 Tag: Nolvadex (Tamoxifencitrat), 20 mg, 2-mal täglich.

Dies ist das effizienteste Schema. Die Behandlung beginnt nach dem Ende eines Zyklus. Wenn Sie jedoch während Ihres Zyklus HCG eingenommen haben, ist die Verabreichung von HCG nicht erforderlich, da die Funktion der Hoden normal sein sollte.

Alternative Version von PCT

Die P ost Cycle-Therapie beginnt, wenn die Wirkung des Steroids abgeschlossen ist. Daher müssen Sie auf seine Halbwertszeit achten.

Leichte PCT (1 oder 2 Medikamente).

Amoxifen 20 Tage - 20 mg + 15 Tage - 10 mg

IfLomifen 20 Tage - 50 mg + 15 Tage - 25 mg

Starke PCT (1 oder 2 Medikamente).

Amoxifen 20 Tage - 30 mg + 15 Tage - 20 mg + 10 Tage - 10 mg

IfLomifen 20 Tage - 100 mg + 15 Tage - 50 mg + 10 Tage - 25 mg

Sehr starkes PCT (alle Medikamente).

Oxamoxifen - 20 Tage - 30 mg.

OmLomifen - 20 Tage - 100 mg. + 15 Tage - 50 mg + 10 Tage - 25 mg.

Hinweis: Verwenden Sie kein oxamoxifen, wenn Ihr Zyklus Prolaktin-induzierende Substanzen enthält.

Beispiel eines Zyklus mit PCT

Beachten Sie, dass Aromatasehemmer nicht nur Gynäkomastie verhindern, sondern auch die Testosteronkonzentration erhöhen. Dies geschieht aufgrund der Blockierung der Testosteronumwandlung in Östrogen.

Gonadotropin bewahrt die Empfindlichkeit der Hoden gegenüber endogenen gonadotropen Hormonen, was eine viel schnellere Erholung nach dem Zyklus ermöglicht.

Tamoxifen ist ein Schlüsselelement der Post-Zyklus-Therapie. Es initiiert die Sekretion von endogenem Testosteron, indem es die Östrogenrezeptoren in der Hypophyse blockiert, jedoch sind mlоmiphéné und Тorémifen besser bevorzugt.

Wachstumshormon und Peptide sind gut für die Unterdrückung von Katabolismus.

Beispiel eines Progestin-Zyklus

Einige Steroide wie Deca, bolrenbolon können den Prolaktinspiegel erhöhen, was zu einer verminderten Libido, Wasserretention und Prolaktin-induzierter Gynäkomastie führt. Cabergolin kann diese Nebenwirkungen vollständig verhindern.

Sie können Clomid anstelle von Tamoxifen oder einem sichereren Medikament - Toremifen - verwenden.

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Top 6 Tipps zur Tierpflege für Ihren Hund

Unabhängig davon, ob Sie planen, Ihren ersten Hund zum ersten Mal zu kaufen oder bereits einen zu erziehen, müssen Sie sich um Ihren geliebten vierbeinigen Freund kümmern, indem Sie seine geistige und körperliche Gesundheit im Auge behalten.

Wenn Ihr Hund bereits an einer chronischen Krankheit leidet und Steroide und Meditationen dafür einnimmt. Sie müssen sicherstellen, dass Ihr Haustier seine Medikamente regelmäßig in der vorgeschriebenen Dosierung einnimmt. Hundepflege ist unvollständig, wenn Sie Ihrem Haustier nicht Ihre Zeit, bedingungslose Liebe und Zuneigung geben.

Wenn Ihr Haustier Steroide hat und an Allergien oder chronischen Krankheiten leidet, ist es noch wichtiger, sich gut um Ihr Haustier zu kümmern.

In diesem Artikel werden wir einige wichtige Möglichkeiten diskutieren, wie Sie Ihr Haustier gut pflegen können.

Sorgen Sie für eine saubere und tierfreundliche Umgebung für Ihren Hund

Um eine saubere und gesunde Umgebung für Ihre Haustiere zu schaffen, müssen Sie Ihr Haustier zunächst vor Luftverschmutzung in Innenräumen und anderen potenziell schädlichen Schadstoffen schützen, die in Innenräumen vorhanden sind. Bei warmem oder feuchtem Wetter können Sie Klimaanlagen oder Kühler verwenden, um die Luft zu reinigen.

Halten Sie Ihr Haustier kühl und hydratisiert

Wie bereits erwähnt, müssen Sie, wenn Ihr Haustier Steroide oder Meditationen hat, noch mehr auf die tägliche Ernährung Ihres Haustieres achten. Einige häufige Nebenwirkungen von Medikamenten und Steroiden bei Hunden sind erhöhter Durst, Durchfall und Urinieren. All diese Nebenwirkungen können bei Hunden zu Dehydration führen. Durch ständige Dehydration kann sich Ihr Hund besonders in den Sommermonaten schwach und müde fühlen. Daher müssen Sie sicherstellen, dass Ihr Hund die richtige Menge Wasser pro Tag trinkt. Versuchen Sie, Ihrem Haustier frisches und sauberes Wasser zu geben, indem Sie das Wasser wechseln und die Wasserschale sauber und hygienisch halten.

Kümmern Sie sich um die Ernährungsbedürfnisse Ihres Hundes

Fettleibigkeit kann die allgemeine Gesundheit und Fitness Ihres Haustieres erheblich beeinträchtigen. Vermeiden Sie Fettleibigkeit bei Ihrem Haustier, indem Sie die Ernährungsempfehlungen des Tierarztes befolgen. Idealerweise ist es am besten, wenn Sie Ihren Hund nach Größe, Rasse, Lebensstil, Alter und körperlicher Aktivität füttern. Versuchen Sie, sich für Bio-Tiernahrung für Ihren Hund zu entscheiden. Wenn Ihr Hund gegen Futtermittel wie Mais, Rindfleisch, Milchprodukte oder Geflügelprodukte allergisch ist, vermeiden Sie den Kauf von Tiernahrung, die Allergien auslösen kann. Stellen Sie sicher, dass Sie ihm gesunde Leckereien geben, anstatt Ihre eigenen Mahlzeiten als Belohnung mit ihm zu teilen.


Überspringen Sie keine regelmäßigen Tierarztuntersuchungen

Ihr örtlicher Tierarzt kann Ihnen alle notwendigen Informationen bezüglich der Impfung und Entwurmung Ihres Hundes geben. Stellen Sie sicher, dass Sie immer ein oder zwei Kopien des Impfprotokolls Ihres Hundes bei sich haben, insbesondere wenn Sie mit Ihrem Haustier in eine neue Stadt oder ein neues Land reisen. Speichern Sie die Nummer Ihres Tierarztes in Ihrem Telefon, um ihn zu kontaktieren, falls es Ihrem Hund nicht gut geht.

Halten Sie Ihr Haustier körperlich aktiv und geistig stimuliert

Stellen Sie sicher, dass Sie Zeit mit Ihrem Haustier verbringen, um seinen Geist frisch und angeregt zu halten. Sie können mit Ihrem Haustier lustige Aktivitäten ausführen, z. B. einen kurzen Spaziergang machen oder seine hausgemachten Lieblingsleckereien zubereiten. Stellen Sie sicher, dass Sie seine Pfoten reinigen, nachdem Sie von einem Spaziergang nach Hause gekommen sind. Vermeiden Sie es außerdem, sich Ihrem Hund zu nähern, wenn Sie sich nicht wohl fühlen und an Grippe oder fieberartigen Symptomen leiden. Sie können jeden in Ihrer Familie oder Ihren Nachbarn bitten, Ihren Hund für Sie zu füttern. Wenn Sie Zeit mit Ihrem Hund verbringen, verstehen Sie die Vorlieben, Abneigungen, Verhaltensmuster usw. Ihres Haustieres.

Kümmern Sie sich um die Pflege und Hygiene Ihres Haustieres

Mundhygiene ist ein wesentlicher Bestandteil der Tierpflege. Viele Hunde haben ein schwaches Zahnfleisch, und wenn die richtige Mundgesundheit nicht erhalten bleibt, kann dies zu Mundinfektionen oder Zahnverlust führen. Lange und überwachsene Nägel können es älteren Hunden schwer machen, richtig zu gehen. Darüber hinaus neigen lange Nägel dazu, schwach zu sein und schnell aufzubrechen, was sehr schmerzhaft sein kann.

Um zusammenzufassen

In diesen stressigen Zeiten, in denen Menschen aufgrund des Koronaausbruchs in ihren Häusern eingesperrt sind, müssen Sie besonders auf die körperliche Fitness Ihres Haustieres achten. Viele Tierhalter vermeiden es, ihre Hunde in öffentliche Parks zu bringen, und bleiben lieber drinnen, um eine Infektion mit dem Coronavirus zu verhindern. Um Ihr Haustier körperlich fit und aktiv zu halten, können Sie es daher auf dem Rasen oder im Garten Ihres Hauses spielen lassen.